Shakespeare's tragedy, "Othello," there is one riddle:
religion does Othello profess? Desdemona says
By heaven, you do
am a Christian!
here the frank and honest Othello is hiding something.
It is considered that he, a black-skinned Moor, is a
Moslem or at least descendent of Moslems. And if one is
to follow the traditional history, then there really is
no other variant.
he ends his life in suicide, recalls:
. . . And say besides, that inAleppoonce,
Where a malignant and a turban'd
a Venetian and traduced the state,
I took by the throat the circumcised dog,
And smote him, thus.
That is, according to contemporary ideas, Islam
already was in the world, since some kind of
"circumcised dog" in a turban fought with the Venetian
Meanwhile, still rather recently (in historical
measurements) the military personnel of many countries
have worn the turban. And circumcision, as it will be
shown in our book, is a most complex phenomenon, which
is characteristic at a definite stage for all of human
it is impossible to understand who Othello is regarding
faith, and it is not clear why he calls the Turk a dog.
But it is
not worth accusing Shakespeare of a mistake. Not only
he, but also the English in general up to the
17th century did not mention anywhere in
written sources the words: "Moslem,
Islam, Koran, minaret, muezzin, hijra, Caaba." The full
impression is that they did not know them. But you know,
the sons of an obscure Albion
already had visited all the corners of the world and
should have known them. No, these words clearly
were unknown to William Shakespeare as well as to
both Francis Bacon and other great Englishmen of that
They are unknown also to the Italian writer
Giraldi Cinthio, upon whose novella the "Moor of Venice"
(the "Hecatommithi" collection or "One Hundred
1566) Shakespeare created his masterpiece.
So, perhaps, there still was not an
The riddle of Othello grows into one of the
cardinal questions connected with medieval times, when
modern nations, states and religions were being born.
book is devoted to this era. Scientific facts are
collected in it that prove that now the predominant
historical science is Utopian. It was
built on false premises and an artificially constructed
chronology. There is a multitude of evidence of the fact
that all "ancient" manuscripts are literary works of the
15th - 16th
that there never was in reality any "ancient"
as historical science teaches us.
collected the conclusions of dozens of scientists from
various countries that the most ancient monuments of
mankind, the pyramids of
were erected in the period between the 11 and
18th centuries of our era.
of written sources on a computer, with a comparative
analysis of their authenticity, and the other newest
methods of the study of history, which were found by the
scientists, allows the contention that: in the 13 -
14th centuries of our era, the first world
war in history broke out. It ended with the formation of
a colossal empire with a capital in
which at that time was called Jerusalem.
territory included a large part of
Asia, all of the civilized
regions of Africa and
basis to say that the Aztec civilization also was
included in the Empire's composition.
subjects named their country
Israel Israel History : Empire of Jews
and practiced a religion which approximately is set
forth in the Old Testament. They named their faith catholic.
Having existed for 70-80 years, the empire broke
up. The violent creation of states began and the
formation of peoples and nations in the modern meaning
of these words.
objective political need
arose for the writing of one's own history, in
comparison with a history common and characteristic for
an empire. It was necessary to find or to create the
proper historical roots, one's own antiquity, which was
not the same as the antiquity of the neighbors. In which
connection, the more deeply these roots went into the
centuries, the more legitimate those or the other rulers
looked in the eyes of the subjects. It was as if their
authority was sanctified by the centuries.
And then the
primary framework of modern historiography was invented.
A hunt was
launched for manuscripts which were declared as ancient.
The main body of sources on the history of antiquity
appeared over only 2 centuries - the 15th and 16th.
happened is well known not only to critics of
traditional historiography, but also to the
ancient manuscripts appeared according to a scheme which
is well seen in the example of one of the brightest
forgers of that time, Poggio Bracciolini. He, an author
of historical and moralistic books, was in the full
sense of the word the dominant influence of his century.
it possible to define the first half of the Italian 15th
Century as Poggio's century. Florenceraised a statue to him, which was carved by the
With the cooperation of the Florentine scholar
and book collector Niccolo Niccoli, Poggio Bracciolini
established a kind of permanent study of ancient
literature and attracted a whole series of collaborators
and partners to the business.
Poggio Bracciolini and Bartolomeo di
Montepulciano made the
first of their "finds" in the era of the Council
In a forgotten, damp tower of the St. Gall
monastery, in which a prisoner would not survive even
three days, they chanced "to find" safe and sound a heap
of ancient manuscripts: essays by
Quintilian, Valerius Flaccus, Asconius Pedianus, Nonius
Marcellus, Probus and others. After
some time, Bracciolini supposedly discovered fragments
"from Petronius" and "the Bucolics" of Calpurnius.
Poggio's clients were the Medici, the
aristocratic families of
the House of the Dukes of Burgundy, Cardinal Orsini,
Colonus, the wealthy such as Bartholomeo de
and universities. He became very
rich on "ancient" manuscripts.
think it was impossible to forge archaeological finds.
But one can find just that which is needed and there
where it is needed.
began in 1711, and in 1748, the excavations at
an advertising and commercial nature. There was no
discussion of any scientific research. The first
made by the English "Society of Amateurs" in 1743-1751.
It was as it was called - a society of amateurs, and it
is not suitable to speak about the scientific level of
the excavations. But even this is not the main thing.
The archaeological expeditions which followed
purposefully destroyed all the discoveries that
contradicted the established views on history. In the
best case, they declared them as erroneous.
Sculptors also created a supposedly ancient
history. The facts are
well known when some of them buried statues of their own
creation in the ground and several years later informed
the world about the fact that they found in their own
vegetable gardens the imperishable works of the ancient
The history of
is full of distortions and fictions. For political and
many other reasons, legends were constructed of the
Tatar Mongolian yoke in Russia and the centuries old
struggle with the Huns in China. Both that and the
other are simply untrue. And so, we shall
try to explain in the pages of this book what it was in
fact and why the Great Wall was built in
in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The high-minded direction of
traditional European history was developed in the
16th-17th centuries, in the era of the Reformation and
The slogan of Nicolo Machiavelli, "The end
justifies the means" and the appeal of Martin Luther,
"He who is not with us is against us" became the main
principles of the greatest historians of that time. The
originator of the modern chronology, Joseph Scaliger
(Bordone), brought up by his philosopher father in the
spirit of "paper will endure all, provided that it is
beautiful," Henry IV Bourbon's court chronicler, was
right after his master first a Catholic, then a
Huguenot. He composed a
"continuous" chronology of the French royal dynasties,
in order to legitimatize and perpetuate the rights of
the Bourbons, who had destroyed the previous
Valois dynasty. All the rest of
world history was called up only to serve as a
background for this purpose.
Austrian Cuspinian (Johann Spiesheimer) carried out the
same work for the Hapsburgs, deriving their
uninterrupted genealogy from Julius Caesar. The history of
Britain in the editions
of the father and son lords-chancellor Bacon became the
most "pseudo-scientific," which were provided moreover
with brilliant "PR" in the form of Shakespeare's
narrative plays. The peaceful
under the crown of the new Scottish dynasty of the
Stuarts predetermined also an "uninterrupted legitimate"
history of the dynastic replacement of Scottish rulers
over 1,200 years.
Roman Catholic Church, which was alarmed by the
preservation of its political influence, took in the
process of the creation of a pseudo-scientific
"worldwide secular" history the most active
participation, in particular, in the person of the
Jesuit monk, Dionysius Petavius. The adoption itself
in Europe of a modern chronology by a decision of the
1563 Council of Trent became an important turning
point - only in this year was it
declared that it was coming up on namely 1,563 years
since the birth of Christ, and all sources which
contradicted this were ordered to be burnt. At the same time,
the "Book of Popes" also appeared which recorded somehow
the uninterrupted succession of the Roman Popes from the
4th through the 9th centuries (to Pope Nicholas I.)
business created a modern historical tradition. From the middle
of the 15th century, by the efforts most of all of the
Florentine Medici bankers, history became the object of
an extremely profitable business - starting from "holy
relics" and ending with "ancient manuscripts." The most glaring
example is the "Donation of Constantine," the forgery of
which Lorenzo Valla proved right in the middle of the
this time an important event in civilization occurs -
the appearance of printing, which stimulates the
unsatisfied market demand for books. Well, and there
where demand is, there also are supplies. An abundance
of just discovered "ancient" manuscripts and chronicles
becomes the most widespread. .
rule, they stop suddenly "somewhere in antiquity." A
typical example is the chronicle of the Saxon
Grammatica, which breaks off in 1185 and is discovered
in 1514. This chronicle
also was fixed into the foundation of the history of the
Scandinavian countries. A certain Gall
Anonim wrote a similar "ancient Polish"
chronicle that ranges to 1113, and it was discovered in
that very same 16th century.
During the 16th
and 17th centuries, their own chronicler appeared in
every European monarchy. "History is
necessary to the prince of such that it allows him to
most effectively rule his people," thus the founder
of political science, Niccolo Machiavelli formulated a
thesis which defines even today the relationship of
authority to history.
to now, very rarely is the research of history free from
political sympathies and antipathies and the wish that
it not begin to play up in a positive sense the role and
significance of the people among whom the researchers
count themselves. Thus,
the brilliant Russian mathematician and revisionist
historian, Anatoly Fomenko, attaches all development of
civilization to Slavic roots, and the Turkic writer M.
Agaji - to Turkic. The Western
historians Otto Rahn, Guido von List and many others
have gone along the very same path.
Book authors suppose such an approach is in
stand in that position, that still very recently,
several centuries ago, people did not consider
themselves either Turks or Russian, or Jews or French,
nothing again in the present meaning of these
There existed a period when they were
not divided in creed, inasmuch as being the subjects of
one empire, they professed one and the same religion -
became a starting position for the creation of worldwide
religions - of the main driving force in mankind's
spiritual life for the centuries ahead.
And this book, relying on the
evidence of the past and those reconstructions which the
critics of traditional historiography suggest today,
speak of the empire and its ideology.