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The Medieval Empire Of Jews

THE MEDIEVAL EMPIRE OF THE ISRAELITES

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                                                   CHAPTER NINETEEN

                                         MANKIND'S DISPLACED MEMORY

        For some centuries already researchers have been trying to understand and explain the nature of anti-Semitism. It has spread everywhere. Its manifestations are found even in those countries such asKorea or Mongolia, where the Jews never were in the past.  Everywhere the words "Hebrew" or "Jew" evoke vigilance, anxious alarm, and the expectation of something bad. They resound as a danger signal.

     These feelings more often than not have no relation to specific Jews. It is impossible to count how many mixed marriages have been performed, are being performed and will be performed in all the countries where Jews live. The count comes to many hundreds of thousands in the United States and Russia. It is not by chance that the U.S. Jewish community declines from decade to decade - not owing to emigration to Israel or an increase of the death rate, but only because children in mixed families stop considering themselves Jews. And nonetheless, their non-Jewish relatives behave on the whole negatively toward Judaism. It is perceived as an abstract Evil, as a sinister fate, which hangs permanently over mankind.

    Such a relationship influences even Jews themselves. Jewish anti-Semitism is wide spread among a significant part of them. At the everyday level, it is manifested in the fact that one or the other man considers himself a true Jew, and those compatriots whom he hates, are degenerates:   "They disgrace us, the real Jews."

    A great deal of the works of the anti-Semitic sense have been written by Jewish authors who attempt to distance themselves from those who as before consider themselves representatives of this people. State and public figures, businessmen, artists and painters who have, besides others, Jewish roots too, as a rule, conceal the fact. Jews, who have converted to Christianity or in general have rejected any kind of religion, often are the most consistent anti-Semites. The brightest examples are the inquisitor Torquemad and the atheist Karl Marx.

      The prominent 19th century researcher Daniil Khvolson considered that in a century "nearly 150 Jews who converted to Christianity published essays that were hostile with respect to Jews. . .  five or six of them were filled with phantasmagoria about ritual murders.  (Daniil Avraamovich Khvolson.  On Some Medieval Accusations against Jews.  A Historical Investigation according to Sources.  - St. Petersburg, 1880, pages 279-280).

          The prevalence of anti-Semitism and its influence on people stumps researchers. Prominent men of letters, historians, philosophers and even businessmen (Henry Ford) have taken up this topic. They have held to various views of Jewry, often diametrically opposed, about which we were speaking in the beginning of the book. They have brought in as evidence whole libraries of works. Nevertheless, the problem has not been made clear so far.

      Many contemporary scientists trace the reasons for anti-Semitism to xenophobia. Indeed, xenophobia, which means in translation from the Greek "fear of foreigners," underlies all nationalistic views. As has been discovered, it is even a principle of animal psychology, which gave birth to natural selection. In the animal world the outsider, as a rule, brings danger. Therefore, our smaller brothers will not accept outsiders. And, in the opinion of psychologists, primitive man inherited this phobia, transferring the notion of "outsider" to unknown tribes.
     In primitive society "we" is always "people" in the direct meaning of the world.  Whereas "they" are not quite people.  A further transformation of this formula:  "they are not quite people" is the corner stone of racist doctrine, a negative reaction to everything that originates from another nation.  "Nationalism starts there where the consciousness of our own individuality changes into a hostile psychological purpose which increases the feeling of fear, hatred and intolerance.

  They ascribe aggressiveness, ill-will and a whole spectrum of negative anti-humanistic features to the other people.  Their own on the other hand - they endow with all possible virtues that serve as a psychological justification of the negative relationship to strangers (V. Iliushenko)

     However, all of this concerns nationalism and xenophobia on the whole. As regards anti-Semitism, then its broadest prevalence testifies to additional roots, which define its uniqueness as a social phenomenon.

     We see these roots most of all in the existence in the Middle Ages of a worldwide empire of monotheists. When the adherents of Judaism, Semites from the Middle East, changed into a predominant priestly caste in the worldwide Catholic-Judaic empire (they called themselves Catholics!) when they took to introducing monotheism there and everywhere by force of arms, when, finally, in its name they began to remove from people the last property to the treasury of the emperor, then did hatred for the Jews flare up as a bright flame, leaving the deepest footprint on the historical memory.  This hatred raged especially frantically after the empire collapsed and nothing protected the "Jew-foreigners" any longer.

     Competition extremely intensified the situation on the part of the Christian trade and financial capital that was again coming into being. And as expected by the new participants of the struggle for supremacy in the trade and financial markets, they established as their goal the weakening, and still better - the extermination of the Jewish competitors, who no longer were supported by the military power of the former empire. A colossal public relations smear campaign of the caste of duty and tax collectors was created for these purposes.

    The newcomers must be given their due: they brilliantly used the chronic hatred of the tax-payers. When they were unable to beat the competitors with smarter transactions, the new masters of the finances and markets elevated the people to the fight under slogans of extermination of those who believed otherwise, the damned murderers of Jesus Christ, the enemies of mankind, the devils incarnate. And then, sometimes in one country and sometimes in another, the pogroms rolled and the fires of auto-da-fe blazed.

      Often, when one really wanted to rob the Jews, the monarchs didn't bother themselves with slogans and appeals. Daniil Khvolson cites such a fact:

     "The German emperor of the time, Albrecht, in the capacity of, as he said, the heir of the emperors Vespasian, Titus and Charlemagne, declared claims to the supreme truths over the French Jews.  Consequently, the King (Phillippe IV "The Fair") suddenly detained all the Jews of France, men and women, old people and children, for one day, took from them all personal assets and real estate, confiscated for his own use all their debts to Christians and, leaving them only the shirt on their backs, banished 100,000 people from the country, having made them beggars.  "Here are your Jews! " - he mockingly said then to the German emperor. "

      Daniil Khvolson does not mention the paradoxical, at first glance, situation:  the king considers the claims of the German emperor on the French Jews are normal. One would think, for what reason can one state manifest its laws on the citizens of another country? It can be only in the case if it is a question of people who have a supranational status that everyone recognizes.  Calling himself the heir of the emperors Vespasian, Titus and Charlemagne, Albrecht was speaking, per se, about the legacy of the empire of monotheists.

       In "A History of Anti-Semitism," Leon Poliakov also cites data which is evidence of the purely material justification for the persecution of the Jews:    

        "The connection between the struggle for the purity of the truth and the class or caste interests is especially keenly observed in Castile, where from the end of the 13th century (according to the Scaliger chronology - author's note) ) the strengthening bourgeoisie received their own representation in the chapter, and also the right to send their own delegates to parliament (Cortes) and to approve taxes."

    They themselves didn't keep the pogroms waiting. The arising bourgeoisie elevated the rabble against the Jews. The slogans are curious under which the crowds threatened those who believed otherwise:   "In Barcelona the crowd cried:   the rich want to destroy the common people!" That is, it was a question not of those who believe otherwise and other nationalities, but of coin purses.   

     In many works devoted to anti-Semitism, a list of Jewish pogroms and persecutions is cited which were committed in various centuries. Here are some lines from this list:
. . . 1290  - The expulsion of the Jews from England.  

1391  - The pogrom in Seville (Spain).  30,000 people killed.  
1394  - The expulsion of the Jews from France.  
1492  - Hundreds of thousands of Jews expelled from Spain. . .  (M. Chernov "Suicide," "Continent USA," 2003)

    We propose that these events need to be dated as the second half of the 15th century, with a time interval of 30 - 40 years.

    On 2 January 1492, Their Catholic Majesties Ferdinand and Isabella ceremoniously entered Granada.   On 31 March of that very same year, they signed an edict about the banishment of the Jews from Spain:

    ". . . We have received information from the inquisitors and from other persons that contact of Jews with Christians is leading to the worst of consequences. .  As a result, our sacred Catholic faith has been humbled and dishonored.  Thus, we have come to the conclusion that the only effective means to put an end to these misfortunes consists of the final severance of all contacts between Jews and Christians, and this can be achieved only by the expulsion of the Jews from our kingdom"     Leon Poliakov)

     Events in neighboring Portugal developed somewhat differently.  Expulsion would have represented an immediate catastrophe for the small country's economy.  Forced Baptism was the only solution, which was compatible with Portugal's political ambitions.  At Easter 1497, events began to unfold at an accelerated rate.  They took the children from their parents and carried them to Baptismal fonts.  Those of the parents who did not follow their children voluntarily were taken there by force several weeks later.  

             "A blasphemous farce, caused by the lowest and vilest of material motives" - such was the verdict in the 20th century of Menendez y Pelayo.

              The "Jewish Encyclopedia" cites the following numbers:  from England in the 13th century  16,000 Jews were expelled, from France in the 14th century 100,000, and from Spain in the 15th century - 200,000 people.  

     Over time, the persecution of the Jews took on a mystical nature. As their role was forgotten in an empire that had passed into non-existence, the existence itself of this group of people began to be perceived as evidence of Satan's schemes. They had become the embodiment of the dark forces, the conductors of Evil in this world. And they were idolized in their own way, they both observed customs which were not the customs of their own people and they prepared something like their own nourishment. But chiefly, the world's gold literally stuck to their hands. It is not unlike the Devil protected them.

      This accusation was especially popular in the decades when the plague and cholera epidemics savaged Europe. As evidence of the connections of the Jews with Satan was the fact that in the years of the "Black Death" fewer of the "Devil incarnate" died than Christians. Now we understand that the isolated life in the ghetto and the observance of special purification rituals adopted in Judaism saved quite a few lives. But at that time they saw in this the hand "of a human sort of enemy."  They were blamed that they, being protected by the Devil, were attempting to annihilate the Christians and wrongly treated the sick, set deprivation upon them with witchcraft and even poisoned the wells.

     In Chillon a certain Jew under torture "confessed," that some of his like believers in the south of France conspired and prepared poison from spiders, frogs, lizards, human flesh, Christian hearts and impure hosts.

 They distributed the powder made from this mixture among the communities so as to scatter it into the wells from which the Christians drew water for drinking. This supposedly also caused the terrible epidemic around all of Europe.

          And most often, accusations were repeated of the kidnapping of Christian infants and their ritual murder.  

   However, not everything is understood with these accusations. Traditional historians with some surprise noted that before the 12th century, Christian society not once made similar accusations concerning the Jews. There are some reports about murders committed for magical and bewitching purposes, but Jews do not figure in them, but heathens.

    Reflecting on this fact, the historians assume that "Obviously, the influence of the horrors which were enkindled by the crusades was decisive." It turns out that before the crusades, they were speaking about the bloody customs of the Jews nevertheless, but quietly, and so the crusades for the liberation of the Holy sepulcher added fuel to the fire.

      How so? It is enough to read the records of one of the participants of the crusade, Robert de Clari, which have been preserved to our time, in order to see what goals the crusaders had set for themselves. They thought about money and plunder, but not about the Holy Sepulcher. And even in general their goal was "slaughter the Saracens," and not "save the Sepulcher." There is not a single word about Jesus or the cross or about the Holy Sepulcher!  (Edgar Holmes McNeal  The Conquest of Constantinople of Robert of Clari.  New  York, 1936) Robert de Clari also didn't mention a word about the Jews - "Christ's killers."

    In our opinion, they did not accuse the Jews of ritual killings for the reason that the Israelites, that is the followers of monotheism, were everyone in that period. Above all they are the ruling elite of the empire! And only then when the empire collapsed, was all that mud, which previously had fallen onto the polytheists, slung onto the Jews.

    The dubious honor of the birth of blood libel belongs to England.  According to the traditional chronology, at the start of the 12th century here, in Norwich, the first matter of a similar accusation was investigated. The body of a young apprentice, William, subsequently recognized as a saint, was discovered the day before Good Friday in a forest.

    The first accusation and first murder of a Jew. A broken-down debtor knight of the dead boy cut him down.  "An accidental coincidence," write the traditional historians.

       Hugo of Lincoln in England, supposedly crucified by Jews in 1255, even became the hero of folk ballads.  

   There was also such a variant of the accusations: In the Temple of Jerusalem supposedly they worshipped the head of a donkey (according to another variant - of a pig) and once a year they sacrificed a captured and well fed Greek. Why in particular a well-fed, and not a skinny Greek, history conceals.  

     If one is to believe the modern Russian anti-Semite Oleg Platonov, then in the Kievan caves are preserved to this day relics of Saint Evstratius, "who was crucified on a cross by Jews on Good Friday in a rite of slandering Jesus Christ in 1096" (Oleg Platonov, Russia's Crown of Thorns.  A Secret of Lawlessness.  Judaism and Freemasonry versus Christian Civilization.  - Moscow, 1998, page 109)

     In many cases they availed themselves of the accusations of ritual murders soberly and prudently.  S. Resnick, who has researched the history of blood libel in detail, writes:

    "The schemes were well developed.  An ordinary Christian child crucified or killed by other means excites the crowd and causes a pogrom during which . .  the Christians succeed in making a good profit.  Later the authorities intervene.  They calm down the crowd. . . and impose an indemnity on the Jewish community.  When little of this is found, they expel the Jews, having robbed them blind.  A simple and reliable method to supplement the emptied treasury of a landlord, monastery or kingdom.

    Tales of man-eating Jews who kidnapped youths, in order to revel in Christian blood in the secret ceremonies of their "Basurman" religion, were part of the consciousness of the peoples of Europe.  Rumor ascribed to the Jews special diseases and properties from which they were able to be saved only with the help of Christian blood.  According to these legends, Jewish women in childbirth were not able to be delivered without the help of Christian blood; their children were born blind, and in order to regain their sight, they also supposedly required Christian blood.  It too was needed for the marriage ceremony and for the rite which was performed over a dying Jew; in order that wild boar's tusks and ears didn't grow in them; even to stop menstruation in Jewish men, which supposedly was peculiar to them the same as even to women.  And, but of course, the most wide-spread rumor was repeated over and over again about the unleavened Passover bread, into which the Jews supposedly mix Christian blood. (S. Resnick.  "Blood Libel  in Russia," Washington, 1999)

           But even this, in our view, does not fully clarify the reasons and incurability of anti-Semitism. The history of mankind knows quite a number of wars in which the enemies committed inconceivable atrocities in relation to each other. Nonetheless, in the historical memory of peoples, who at some time have suffered huge losses during battles and in years of lawlessness, there is no chronic hatred. No one takes revenge on the heirs of former enemies, experiences jealousy and alarm, and having seen them, calls on fellow citizens for the destruction of the "strangers." Only the Jews alone are favored with such an honor.

      Modern psychoanalysis gives a persuasive explanation for this phenomenon.    It has revealed that human consciousness breaks up and replaces unpleasant memories.

    Here is a typical syndrome described in psychiatric textbooks.

    A father, overall an easy-tempered man, while drinking whiskey, lit a cigar and treated his son roughly and cruelly.  When the son had grown, and his father has died, the son with trepidation began to react to his memory, in many respects exaggerating the father's actions. The unpleasant memories have been crushed completely and sincerely. However, with the smell of cigar smoke asthmatic spasms and the on-set of asphyxia started in him. Treatment with medicines has not helped, and then the psychiatrists, while doing a checkup, ascertain that in the son's consciousness the memories of the real father were split:  the "good" father was idealized, and the "bad" replaced and displaced into the subconscious. And it reacted to cigar smoke.

    A further development of this scientific course which is called neofreudism, has led to the discovery that something similar happens with social memory.

     One can fully seriously contend that memories of the real empire of the Israelites, in many respects cruel and ruthless, have been split in the consciousness of European society into a good hundred idealized stories and one displaced memory. Among the versions, according to the reasons for the events of those years, our historical memory has brought into the world the "ancient Roman," "Byzantine," "ancient Greek," "ancient Jewish," "ancient Russian," "Mongolian," "ancient Chinese" and some other histories. In which connection, as already was shown, they are idealized, that is, they are distinguished by the brilliant heroism of the participants of the events, by their nobility, by the pure feelings, by fearlessness in the struggle for justice and the like.   Chroniclers and historians have called and call the ancient times the "Golden Age," when both people were supposedly better and life considerably more interesting.

    The very role of the "cigar" in the public memory has fallen to Judaism.

     Taking after Freud, S. Resnick emphasizes that the legend of the "use of Christian blood" is nothing other than the transfer to the Jews of an anti-Semite's own secret longings.

    "Christianity has condemned human sacrifice as a terrible sin, but the atavistic inclination for orgies of blood has not disappeared.  It has been suppressed, displaced into the subconscious.  And afterwards it was carried over to the Jews. . ." (S. Resnick, The Seduction of Hatred.  Blood Libel  in Russia.  Daat/Znanie Publishers, Moscow-Jerusalem, 2001)

      Thus, at the root of anti-Semitism, in our view, lies the displaced memory of mankind about the cruel and bloody features of the first empire of monotheists.

    The facts connected with the cardinal question:  when did Anti-Semitism arise?  testify, in particular, to the validity of our approach to this phenomenon.  

     Indeed, did it exist until the Middle Ages? The author of the well-known work, "A History of Anti-Semitism," Leon Poliakov, thinks that anti-Semitism arose in the Hellenistic era, and is dated by the period of Alexander the Great's campaigns to the 30s of our era. The first manifestations of anti-Jewish sentiments are observed, in his opinion, in the city of Alexandria.

      V.  Iliushenko, an Orthodox historian, author of numerous articles about the mutual relations of Christianity and Judaism, holds another view:

    "Anti-Semitism existed before Christianity.  It has a pagan origin.  And it is connected with the fact that Judaism, which the Jews professed, is a monotheistic religion, it opposed the pagan polytheism in a natural way.  The facts of Jewish pogroms were well known as early as the first century B.C. in Alexandria."

       As we see, the opinions agree on one thing: the first pogroms supposedly took place in ancient Alexandria. The assertion of V. Iliushenko, irreproachable in its logic, is cheapened by the reference to this Egyptian city. And here is why. That which are the "facts of the Jewish pogroms were well known as early as the first century B.C.," is based on documents composed in the Middle Ages, as demonstrated by the adherents of the new chronology. Not a single original of these documents has been preserved. Their appearance itself testifies to massive forgeries:  they only appeared when the monarchs, bishops or  noble grandees ordered them.

     Thus it happened, for example, with the speeches and letters of Cicero, which no one knew before the Middle Ages. And, you see, in them are very sharp anti-Semitic expressions which are used to this day:   

     "You know, Laelius, what kind of a gang this is, how they hold together, what influence they exert on the meetings.  Therefore, I will speak in a low voice in order that only the judges can hear me, because many people will be found who are ready to set this crowd on me and on every respectable man, and we don't want to make this easier. . ."

     "The Jewish people are spread over the whole earth, scattered among the residents of a multitude of countries."  "There is neither one city of the Hellenes and not one of the barbarian people where our custom of celebration of the Sabbath, fasting and lighting of candles would not have penetrated," writes Josephus Flavius supposedly at the start of the new era.

  Meanwhile, as the adherents of the new chronology have shown, there is evidence of the fact that his compositions were written after the sailing of Christopher Columbus.

     Max Weber is categorical:  

     "The universal propagation of 'anti-Semitism' in antiquity is a fact."         

Theodor Mommsen maintains:

    "From Horace's slight mockeries of the obsessive Jews from the Roman ghetto it was a huge step to the absolute hatred of Tacitus for these fiends of  a humankind, for whom everything clean is unclean, and all that is unclean is clean. . ." ("Roman History," volume V)

      The hatred of Tacitus is not the least classical. Tacitus himself appeared at that time when it had become necessary to have an ancient history of an arising Germany. So then, in the 15th century, the Roman Pope, Leo X (really the 10th? ) publishes Tacticus's "Germany," which there and then becomes the foundation of German history which was unknown to anyone before that.  As early as 1425,  the papal secretary, Poggio Bracciolini, a well-known Italian forger of "ancient" works, ordered this production in the German Hershfeld monastery.  In 1455,  the manuscript was, finally, brought into Italy by a certain Alberto d'Ascoli.  The popes did not decide to publish the remake for dozens of years, and when, at last, they did decide, they immediately destroyed the original of the manuscript.  The inquisition after some time makes short work of one of d'Ascoli's descendants. Probably, they were destroying the last traces of the fraud.  
     Up to now, no one has attempted to explain how Tacticus's manuscript came to be in a German monastery, how it was preserved there 1,500 years and why they had not used it all this time. ( Dr.  Lucas Brasi, Der groe Schwindel.  Bausteine fr eine wahre Geschichte der Antike. 1955)

        That which is "ancient anti-Semitism" is in fact a tracing of the anti-Semitism of a completely different era, and by implication the traditional historians recognize themselves, and even everyone, who for some kind of reasons is involved with this problem. True, they are expressed carefully, using words of the type "surprisingly," "strangely enough," "mysteriously," and the like. But the essence remains the following:       

     "Antiquity in interrelations with the Jews demonstrates to us the features, which sometimes surprisingly are reminiscent of a new time, even the last century or the last decades. . .   The principle factors which define even now the situation of "Jewry" already were present in antiquity.

     So writes Igor Shafarevich, who stands on the side of "moderate" anti-Semitism.  

    One of the most surprising peculiarities of the persecutions consists of the fact that they have born, so to speak, a cyclical nature. Periods of persecutions where replaced by an invitation to the Jews to return to the countries from where they were expelled.

     Characteristic in this regard is England, where a broad discussion of the merits of Judaism and its consequences preceded their return. The preacher and theologian, John Toland, who is called the "first free thinker in the history of the West," in connection with persecutions against the Jews even brought an accusation against the fathers of the church of the distortion of the original Christian teachings ("Nazaicus,  a Jewish,  Gen­tile and Mahometan Christianity" (1718):  

    ". . .  the true Christianity of the Jews was suppressed as a result of the actions of the much more numerous heathens who did not endure the simplicity and full agreement with the reason of this Jewish Christianity (.. .  ) Thanks to that very same heathen tradition, veneration of the saints, prayers for the dead, the worship of icons and other manifestations of Greek and Roman superstitions were introduced, not the least trace of which it is impossible to find anywhere in the Bible.  

    A brave assertion for the start of the 18th century.

    In the work, "Arguments in Favor of the Naturalization of Jews in Great Britain and Ireland," John  Toland assures his readers of the fact that a significant part of them has Jewish blood in their veins, especially this concerns the Scots, "which is the reason for which numerous residents of this part of the island experience a significant aversion to pork and blood pudding, while not speaking of some other easily noticed coincidences."

    It is funny to read that Jewish blood flows in the veins of Scots. It is much more serious to presume that in the Scots a bias toward pork has remained since the times of the empire of the monotheists!  But we are getting into details already. The main thing in the other, in Toland's opinion, is the Jews need to return to England.

    Why?  John Toland, as too many other authors, insists on special Jewish abilities, which were claimed again by yesterday's thugs and murderers.     

    A weak basis. The heirs of the imperial publicans and money-lenders did not possess any kind of special economic and financial talents, without which those driven out of a country, in particular, England, almost perished. There were no such talents, even as there wasn't even a Jewish nation itself. .

      Then nations generally didn't exist in the modern meaning of this word. People defined themselves according to beliefs.  When Jesus Christ said that "there is neither Greek nor Jew" before the Most High, he didn't have in mind Jews and Greeks as nations, as it is understood now by the popular perception.  By Jews in the Gospels they have in mind the followers of the teachings of Moses, that is  monotheists, and by Greeks - pantheists, the heathens who recognize polytheism.  Not an ethnic, but a religious classification of the population held sway.

      This tradition has been maintained in many countries to now. In Jewry itself, deeply believing people even up to the present time think Jews only are those who religiously obey the instructions of the Torah. Therefore, a non-believer for them is not a Jew, even if all his forefathers were faithful Jews. But they unconditionally recognize as Jews, for example, native Russian peasants from the Smolensk, Astrakhan and Voronezh areas of Russia who professed Judaism as early as the second century.  

    Instead of "nation" in the historical sources are met the expressions "Germanic tribes" (for example, the Angles, Saxons, Francs and Goths), the "Slavonic tribes" (the Krivichi, Polieni, Drevliani, and Vyatichi), the "Iberian tribes" (the Picts, Basques, Turdetans, Torduls) and so  on.  The common word "tribes" here is accompanied by definitions of the "Germanic," "Slavonic," and "Iberian." . .  But the are the ideas equivalent that are contained in these definitions to the idea of "nation"?  

     The first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica (Edinburgh, 1771 ) maintains that the word German meant even as early as the 18th century  "half-blooded, a relative by blood," that is  of the same tribe.  The word german generally still didn't have the meaning "German as nation" at that time.  Therefore, "ancient Germans" - is any community of people who adhere to a clan-tribal structure of interrelations which is based on a blood relationship.  Any tribe, for example, Slavonic - the same as Germans, as too Saxons, Sweves and Cimbri.  In the Spanish language, for example, the word hermano even today means "brother" and hermana is "sister."

     Once we have touched upon the etymology of the names of tribes and nations, we shall clarify what "Jew" means. According to the research of Emile  Benveniste, a first-rate modern expert in these questions, "Jew," besides "stranger" means the same thing that "Hun" and "Tatar" and "Turk" mean. They express the idea of a "mixed people" in various languages.  And today there is the international word hybrid (English  hybrid "dissimilar, mixed," Italian  ibrido. ) Jews (English  Hebrew,-they themselves are Iberian) - this is a mixed population in the ethnic sense of the medieval Mediterranean Sea, according to Father    Alexander Men, a "Mediterranean Sea race," and by no means Jews in the modern sense.      

    Nations and peoples were formed only after the fact as states rose on the ruins of the empire. They are the produce of the historical development of recent centuries!  And only the Scaliger chronology has allowed transferring to the depths of the centuries the realities of the newest times and to declare peoples as ancient, and others supposedly as young. We all are from the same time.

      Traditional history, but of course, does not agree with this. It thinks that the formation of peoples went in accordance with a plan that was clearly prescribed in the march of Moses:  they left from some kind of region for another region, conquered the aboriginals of that place, organized a state in the new place headed by some ruler, lived through a period of flourishing and. were turned into aboriginals for new conquerors.  Thus did the ancient "ethnos" appear and disappear, and circles of human civilization replaced each other, while being elevated according to the Marxist spiral supposedly all the way to the 17th century, when, at last, modern nations were formed by the labors of the humanists.

      Here is such a plan which was highlighted as early as in the Old Testament, according to which the whole Scaliger chronology was constructed. In it, it would seem, even the history of the Jews is confined. However, how does one explain the fact that they do not disappear? From all the other "most ancient ethnos" some names remain, and Jews as they were, so have they too remained in this world. An inexplicable anomaly.  Just as, in the best case, is "the riddle of the historical process," in the worst are the "intrigues of Satan."

     But let us return to the questions of just what the secret of the return of the Jews to one or the other country is. It consisted, above all, of their financial and trade connections. No persecutions were able to extirpate the traditions of the former imperial caste, the solidarity of its members, professionals in financial spheres, their mutual aid and support. Their connections ranged to all countries, regardless of borders and distances. They knew that without economic and financial interaction with neighbors not one state can exist, and therefore, sooner or later their experience, skills and their business contacts again will be needed. And when they invited them, they returned to continue their business. It is clear, with a great advantage for themselves. There is no place for unselfishness in business.

     "The chimerical nationality of the Jew is the nationality of a merchant, generally of a man of means.  Money is the jealous god of Israel, in the face of which there is not supposed to be any other god." Karl Marx)

        The Jews were also extremely useful as skilled craftsmen, experienced physicians, musicians, naturalists and even simply a literate people.

    In the conditions of persecutions they, essentially, trusted only their own and preferred to carry on business mainly with their own. In this is one of the chief reasons for the ineradicability of Judaism, which is connected with the caste's code. Its moral standards, rules of behavior and rituals, language and external attributes have served as infallible guidelines in the recognition of their own.

      The Russian historian, Vladimir Soloviev wrote:  

    ". . . besides a passion for money, the Jews also have another peculiarity:  the strong unity of all of them in the name of a common faith and a common law. . .  Both all Israel, and every family in it. . .  they are penetrated to the depths of the soul and to the marrow of the bones with the sense and consciousness of their own national, familial and personal I. . . " (Vladimir Soloviev "The Jews  and the Christian Question")

     One doesn't pretend it possible to agree with the historian. Everything about which Vladimir Soloviev wrote is inherent not to a nation. There is nowhere in the world a nation, all the members of which equally would be "penetrated with the sense and consciousness of their own national, familial and personal I." A nation is not an army which lives according to military regulations. And the fact that a discipline, comparable with military, was inherent to the Jews in many ways serves as another proof of its caste roots.

    One may compare it with the nobility in the era of the medieval flowering of this class. To be a noble by blood or by the grace of a king was considered the highest honor, although it also applied extremely tough limitations on behavior and dictated everything, right up to the point of how to dress, how to travel (only on horse!) and how to treat the common people, who deserved only arrogant and scornful treatment. It is enough to read a number of places in the Talmud in order to feel a truly nobleman's attitude of the Jews to those who believe otherwise. Haughtiness and contempt for the "Goyem" are in excess there.

   The founding fathers of the modern state of Israel have felt perfectly the cliquishness of the Jews. One of them has talked about the fact that he dreams of a time when their own criminals, prostitutes and prisons will be in Israel. And then it will be a normal state, the same as all the rest. In other words, not a caste.

     The dreams of the founding fathers have been realized in full.  Israel exists, and the Jewish people live there. And it has prisons, prostitutes, drug addicts and gays. As all people have. The times of the caste and its global role in the world have ended.

   The main reasons for the formation of this people, in our view, was the colossal external pressure on the Jews and the caste discipline in their midst. This process was concluded by the creation of the state of Israel.

    The role of anti-Semitism in the unity of the Jews more than once has been underscored by the founders and ideologists of Zionism.

    Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, wrote in his diary:  "Anti-Semites will be our most reliable friends, and anti-Semitic countries - our allies" (Patai, 1960, volume 1, page  84).  

     Dr. Arthur Ruppin thought:  "Although it is impossible to maintain that anti-Semitism alone contributed to the rise of Zionism, but at least in Western Europe anti-Semitism is the strongest agitator for Zionistic affairs.  Anti-Semitism, having perished, would have carried even Zionism behind it to the grave" ("Jews of the Present"  Jewish Publishing House, Cologne, 1911, page  278).  

      Dr. Leo Wertheimer wrote in his book published in 1918, "Anti-Semitism and the Jews":  "Anti-Semitism is the savior angel of the Jews, it takes care that the Jews remain Jews... Anti-Semites have aroused the Jewish consciousness in many Jews who didn't want to have it" (Quotation  from the book:  "Dr. Franz Sheidl.  "Israel - Dream and Reality"  Vienna, 1962, page  18).
     Noam Goldman said in his welcoming speech at the Worldwide Jewish Congress on 23 July 1958   in Geneva:  "When anti-Semitism in its classical form disappeared, this improved the material and political position of Jewish communities throughout the whole world, but it also rendered a negative influence on our inner life. . .  Our people know how to fight heroically in bad times, buy still have not learned to live constructively in good times" (New York Times, 24 July 1958.)

    Professor Jeshua Goldman declared at the 26th conference of the Worldwide Zionist Organization in Israel on 30 December 1964:  "The greatest danger for the Jews and Jewish unity is the absence of anti-Semitism" (Franz  Sheidl, op.cit., page  18).
     All these pronouncements are used by anti-Semites for evidence of the artificiality, even the illegitimacy of the appearance of the Jewish nation and its state. But with the closest examination, it turns out that all states and the overwhelming majority of peoples of the world have gone through stages of violent, and this means, artificial unification!  In the relatively distant past these are the English, French, Spanish and Italians who have lived through severe unifying wars. In more recent times-Russia, Germany and China. All states and nations of North and South America were formed by no means in a natural course.       .

      But let us return to the Jews.

      One of the most popular legends about Jews is connected with their supposed attempt to predominate in the world. All anti-Semitism, in essence, is supported by this. There is no special need to enumerate in detail the works on this subject: It is enough to recall "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion," the reference book for anti-Semites of all countries.  It already had been shown long ago that it is a forgery, created for the basis of persecutions of the Jews. Its authors have been revealed, the sources analyzed scrupulously that were used by the compilers of the "Protocols," and all the absurdities and stupidities made by them have been pointed out. However, nothing is injurious to the book's popularity. It responds to the unconscious feeling of jealousy and alarm that people experience, having heard the word "Jew."

     As regards the predominance of Jews in the world, that, in our opinion, the anti-Semites are somewhat right, while not knowing it, obviously, themselves. The descendants of the monotheist Jews really do rule the world.  But only it isn't those who live in Israel. It is a question of the royal, tsarist, princely and similar dynasties, both in Europe and in Asia and North Africa. It is common knowledge that they are connected with each other by old kindred ties and that many of them are proud of their legendary origin from the family of King David and his distant descendant Jesus Christ. In particular, as we already have said, the memory has been maintained in such a mythological form of the affiliation of their ancestors to the ruling elite of the empire of the Israelites.    

   However paradoxical it is, in relation to other peoples the Jews fulfill that very same function that anti-Semitism is in relation to the Jews. The political scientist Alexander Verkhovsky spoke about this very precisely, in our view, in a recent lecture at the University of Sussex (2003), which was devoted to nationalism:

   "An enemy is the most necessary part of any nationalistic concept, but a defined hierarchy of enemies is better.  In this sense, it is simpler for orthodox nationalists since the main Enemy was known in advance - it is the Anti-Christ.  And there is a rich tradition of describing the enemies subordinate to it - the Jews, Catholics, etc.

    It is fine if the enemy is invisible and ubiquitous. Then the human imagination will fill out its form with such horrific details that no additional propaganda will be needed. People will be flocking together, ready for everything for the sake of its annihilation.  And then not even is an open appeal enough, but a hint at the fact that those who believe otherwise are to blame for everything, so that the throngs under common, most often - national, banners rush to annihilate them, believing that as a result a heavenly life will ensue.

        As the researchers of various countries note, in the later Middle Ages, the European question fell into the context of the concept of progress. This concept became a secular reflection of religious concepts of a coming Heavenly Kingdom on Earth. The inquisitive minds of Europe developed various plans of social order which could put an end to injustice, oppression, poverty and the lawlessness of people. They believed that it is possible to transform the world according to a thoroughly considered plan. The main thing is to provide for and count everything.

     It was Utopia.   Usually, when they speak about Utopia, they have in mind socialistic ideals. However, an absolute monarchy became the first such Utopia. The works of prominent philosophers and the statesmen of that time are well known, in which exceptional value and the need for the power of an absolute monarch was proven for society's progress (Niccolo Machiavelli. 1469-1527.  "The Prince). For the Jews, the remains of the caste of the old empire, there was no place, naturally, in this Utopia. And persecutions of them intensified repeatedly.  

   Then the Utopism of the nation arrived to replace the Utopian monarchy. It was especially popular in the 18-19th centuries (William Pitt the Elder (1708-1778), when modern nations and countries were being formed. Its main distinguishing feature became the assertion that the state should be mononational.  A rapid and quite often violent abrasion of differences between peoples inhabiting the British Isles, between Swabians and Prussians in Germany and Ukrainians, Byelorussians and Russian in Russia proceeded. . . And here again they were imposed on the Jews, who did not wish to be joined into the nation-building process.

      National Utopism began to exhaust itself toward the middle of the 19th century. It had become clear that the creation of nations does not solve the most acute social problems. And then social Utopia appeared in the first plan - to build a society of justice, where all are equal, outside of the dependence on nationality. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.)  It brought mankind the greatest losses and sufferings, inasmuch as one can create such a society only while destroying enormous masses of people who do not correspond to the criteria of the new teachings. It is enough to recall if nothing else the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, where they shot hundreds of thousands of citizens only because they thought not as the Bolsheviks prescribed. For the seven decades of the existence of the Soviet Union the number of those repressed there numbered in the millions. The mass repressions didn't cease for even a year in all the countries that entered toward the middle of the 20th century into the "world of socialism." It was possible to compel the people to live according to the contrived programs exclusively by force.

       Jews played the most active role in attempts to realize the social Utopia everywhere.  And this generously fed anti-Semitism.  The American author, Douglas Reed, in the book "The Controversy of Zion" wrote that the "primitive tribes from the distant interiors of Africa," against whom "national animosity was so strong that to assuage it turned out to be impossible" led the revolution of 1917 in Russia. Thus did Douglas Reed explain and justify that during the civil war in Russia both the Whites, followers of the overthrown tsar, and the Reds, the Bolsheviks, destroyed Jewish townships.

      Many researchers see a reason for the revolutionary sentiments of the Jews in the fact that Jewish communities in Eastern Europe were in distress. Douglas Reed thought that the Jews themselves were to blame for their poverty. In his opinion, they violently resisted any attempts to improve their situation, maintaining it "for reasons of the arrangement of revolutions and world wars." ("The Controversy of Zion")

     Later it became clear that it is impossible here, on Earth, to create a kingdom of universal happiness. Something or someone will interfere. Some kind of enemies will upset the apple cart.  And then a new anti-Semitism evolved, which accuses the Jews of the collapse of the worldwide Communist experiment.    

     The Italian writer Umberto Eco, as too other authors, distinguishes religious, popular and "intellectual" anti-Semitism. He writes:

     Religious anti-Semitism, undoubtedly, bore the responsibility for popular:  after all, the fact that the Jews were the people who killed God, justified the pogroms. . .  But underneath "intellectual" anti-Semitism I have in mind a theory, which is based on historical and anthropological arguments, which is set in the superiority of the Aryan race over the Jewish, and the political doctrine of the Jewish conspiracy for the conquest of the Christian world, which most fully is presented in the 'Protocols of the Zionist Wise Men.'  It is also a product of the European secular 'intelligentsia.'"

      "Intellectual" anti-Semitism, in his opinion, is born at the end of the 18th - start of the 19th centuries in Italy and France.  In particular in France, by an irony of fate, the old seat of Catharism, with which the Judaic first inquisition struggled, they get the development of a theory of racism or ethnic roots of civilization, the theory of a Jewish conspiracy is developed which is responsible from the start for the mistakes of the French revolution, and afterwards for intrigues for the purpose of subjugating the Christian world.  

      Racist theories also bloomed like a magnificent flower in the Russia of the 19th - start of the 20th century. The Russian predecessors of the German Nazis wrote:  

       "It is necessary to understand that racial characteristics have delimited the Jewish people so greatly from all of mankind that they have made of them completely special creatures who cannot be part of our notion of human nature.  We can examine them as we examine and study animals, we can feel aversion and dislike toward them, as we feel toward a hyena, toward a jackal or spider. . .  ".  Alexander Arkadievich Stolypin. "New Times," 1911, 5 October.)

    Another publicist, he himself a clergyman, Pavel Florenskiy thought that equality of peoples was thought up by the Jews in order to "take advantage of us." Altogether they wrote that all religions are a vestige, for the purpose of "taking from us our strength - our trust. . . they taught us 'autonomous' morals in order to take away existing morality and instead to give us vulgarity. . .  The weighty grain is for them, and the chaff is for us, the 'cattle,' in their view." (Efim Kurganov.  Pavel Florenskiy and the Jews.  "Russkiy Evrey," 1999, Volume 2 (11), pages  22-24).  

       It further turns out that now there is not one people in the world that is completely free of Jewish blood. Every people with every year increases the percentage of Jewish blood, that is it is rarefied in their own distinctive character. .   "The percentage of Jewish blood in all peoples will be so significant, that this blood finally will drown out any other blood, eat it as acid eats paint. . .  Even an insignificant drop of Jewish blood. . .  will impart to all the structure of the soul the die and the stamp of the Jews."  

     So wrote a Christian clergyman.  

     Thus, the waves of anti-Semitism are all the more drastic and merciless than the more acute social and political problems in one or the other society. In such periods the chronic paranoiac relationship to Jews, which has become part of the social consciousness, automatically suggests to people who are in a severe material and moral situation who is to blame for their misfortunes. The greatest persecutions of the Jews, the most misanthropic appeals and pronouncements we observe in the decades, are a turning point for one or the other country.

    In order to make certain of this, it is enough to recall when in particular anti-Semites raised and raise the banners of their own predecessors, it would seem, surely buried in the depth of the centuries.  The most recent examples:  in France it is the second half of the 19th century, in Russia - the start of the 20th century, before the First World War and the October Revolution, and in Germany - after the First World War.

     Psychologists and political scientists connect this with a common phenomenon which has received the name Weimar Complex. It existed long before the start of the 20th century, but is known as Weimar because in particular in Germany, which was beat in the First World War, it developed especially distinctly. The complex is based on the humiliation and feeling of inferiority, and also on the wish to restore greatness and to take revenge on enemies. But, the first enemy, as is well known, is the Jews. And Hitlerism started from it.

     Now a paranoiac relationship to the Jews is observed especially distinctly in post-Soviet Russia and the Arab world, where social and economic antagonisms are extremely acute.

       The Jews are perceived as Russia's main enemy and of Orthodoxy in general.  An important feature of the Jew as enemy is the fact that he invisibly stands for all the other visible enemies.  The control of the Jews over the United States or over the worldwide financial system is commonplace. And they control the press:

     "The strongest weapon in the arms of the Zionists is their control over all means of information." ("The Controversy of Zion")  

    The Catholics also are under control of the Jews. Theorists of anti-Semitism write today:  

    "The past years have clearly shown that the heretic Vatican has become the main tool of the godless Israel in the affair of "the Judaisation of Christianity."  What is more.  

 "both the Catholics and the Jews are waiting for the same Messiah," that is the Antichrist.  

    Even the most ardent Russian anti-Semite - neo-heathens - submit to the Jews:  

    "As regards the appearance of neoheathenistic, although anti-Zionist books, that is of no surprise, since those very same Zionists are imposing the neoheathenism."

      "Beyond the explosions of the rockets in Afghanistan it almost is not heard how beneath the Al-Aks mosque with the labor intensity of ants they are working on the reconstruction of the third temple, where the Antichrist is supposed to be enthroned. (Telecast "Russian Home," Moscow, 8 November 2001. )

   The old anti-Semitism hated the Jews.  The new considers Jewish everything that it hates.  They no longer seek on the basis of blood.  As one of the most typical Russian anti-Semites, General Albert Makashov, said:  "Yid is not a nationality, and not every Jew is a Yid.  A bad person of any nationality. . .  he is called a Yid." .  

            The orthodox Moslems also see in the Jews the cause of the most serious economic and political gaps of their countries.  They rely on the anti-Jewish sura in the Koran.  According to the sacred book of the Moslems, for example, those of the Jews "who have not come to believe are in Gehenna's fire, residing there eternally.  They are the worst of creatures."          

     As a political ideology, Islamic fundamentalism declares war on modern Western democratic values as Jewish. This sounds like:  the core of democratic society consists of the fact that the "Jews . .  could indulge in debauchery, lie and cheat without problems."

      Another author writes:  "Anyone who tears the umma (Moslem society) from its religion and the Koran can be only a Jewish agent - willingly or unwillingly, independent of origin.  

    The situation is repeated with modern Christian anti-Semitism:  everything that is hated is proclaimed as Jewish.   

    The sentiments of Moslem radicals in Chechnia, one of Russia's autonomous republics, are typical, where a bloody war has been going on for some years between the central authorities and the orthodox of the Wahhabit type.  After a temporary victory of the separatists in 1996-1999, Chechnia became, strangely enough, a region of prevailing anti-Semitism. There were practically no Jews in Chechnia. Nonetheless, the rebels announced that "the Chechens have become the victim of the worldwide Zionist conspiracy" and that "the Jews are killing the Moslems with the hands of the stupid Russians."  

    The incursion of the Islamists into Dagestan the summer of 1999 was proclaimed by its initiators as the continuation of the struggle not with Russians, but with "worldwide Zionism," and the final goal of the war that was starting was called "the liberation of Jerusalem."     

    (According to the materials of the Moscow Bureau for the Rights of Man:  www.answering-islam.org in the sections Muhammad and his Enemies, Islam & Terrorism)

      Nowadays in Europe, blood libel no longer enjoys popularity. Instead in the Moslem world, in the masses of illiterate peasants and tradesmen, it has received broad dissemination. In which connection this phenomenon is in particular of our time. When in 1840, the so-called "Damascus Affair" arose, the Jews of Damascus were accused of the murder not of a mullah, but of a Christian Capuchin. Christians introduced blood libel into the Moslem world.

     Today their help is no longer necessary for the Islamic radicals. The Moslems believe blood libel unconditionally, especially since people who are considered respectable learned men speak and write about it. Thus, a professor of the Korolevskiy University Al Dammam (Saudi Arabia), Doctor Umaima Akhmad al-Jalama, tells his listeners that during the Purim holiday the Jews prepare special dishes, which are mixed of human blood. He describes with relish how they obtain this blood: they shove a non-Jewish child, a Moslem or a Christian, into a barrel, which is studded within with nails. They granulate the blood received, hand it over to a "Jewish priest," and he prepares hamentaschen cookies and presents them to the parishioners. They, tasting the cookies, get drunk on wine until they lose human appearance and have sexual orgies in the synagogues.

 ("Al-Riad" newspaper, 10-12 March 2004)

    The procession of anti-Semitism continues.  No one knows, per se, how to curb it. Many set hopes on an increase of society's education:  the more people there will be with upper and secondary education, that is with more developed intellect and culture, the less room will remain for nationalistic prejudices.

     Life, however, convinces about the other. In all countries, the representatives of the intelligentsia are the most uncompromising anti-Semites.  They are those who write the books, publish the newspapers, teach the children in the schools and lecture on the "Zionist wise men." They themselves create the nationalistic organizations and establish the international connections with like-thinkers. Solid financial circles in dozens of countries are their support. So, an overall upgrade in the level of culture and education, alas, will not help.

     In our view, the problem is not in the education as it is and not in the culture, but in their content. Anti-Semitism, as we have been assured, is based on myths connected with the postulates of traditional history. And one needs to begin with these postulates. The light at the end of the anti-Semitic tunnel will begin to appear when school children study not the myths and legends about the past of their peoples, but authentic history. It is full of cruelty and sufferings, and one cannot always be proud of it. But it allows one to see who is who in this world.  The better means of persuasion is historical truth. It is too bad that not all require it.

                                  

   

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